Most of these actually were new in 2010. I'm a bit more up to date on the podcast scene than in other areas. Also, podcasts are a much newer concept (which you may read more about in my podcast sidebar if you are not familiar with them).
These are those that I am fond enough to listen to repeatedly. As you can see, it has been a very good year for podcasts and there is something here for practically everyone. The description comes from the podcasters themselves for the most part ... enjoy!
Spilled Milk - Matthew Amster-Burton and Molly Wizenberg combine food and comedy in a bowl and stir it up until it explodes. Join your jovial (possibly too jovial) hosts, Molly and Matthew, for recipes, cooking tips, winning lotto numbers, and catfights.
The Sporkful - The Sporkful is an award-winning podcast and blog about food, but not so much about cooking or recipes or restaurants. We discuss, debate, and obsess over the most ridiculous food-related minutiae, always seeking new and better ways to eat. Hosted by Dan Pashman and Mark Garrison, former co-workers at NPR, The Sporkful is where sacred cows get grilled.
Guys Can Read - A weekly podcast book discussion from a guy's perspective (two guys actually and the book talk is great).
The China History Podcast - Five millennia of Chinese history brought to you each week for your podcast listening pleasure.
A History of the World in 100 Objects - from the BBC (and unusually available in podcast form for all to enjoy).
History of Philosophy - Peter Adamson hosts a podcast covering the entire history of philosophy... without any gaps!
My Merry Christmas Podcast - The Merry Podcast is our audio edition of the best of MMC featuring one-of-a-kind programs exploring everything about Christmas with the help of the team from Merry Christmas Radio, our online radio station broadcasting Christmas year-round.
Chop Bard - The podcast dedicated to picking apart the works of William Shakespeare, scene by scene, offering a fresh and entertaining look at some old goods- it is the cure for boring Shakespeare.
Freakonomics Radio - Just like the books, Freakonomics Radio will explore “the hidden side of everything.” It will tell you things you always thought you knew but didn’t, and things you never thought you wanted to know, but do.
Movie Date from The Takeaway - Each week, Newsday film critic Rafer Guzman and Takeaway producer Kristen Meinzer get in a heated, but friendly debate about the movies.
99% Invisible - Trying to comprehend the 99% invisible activity that shapes the design of our world. (In the design category ...)
A Short History of Japan - A quick tour through the cool bits of Japanese history.
Catholic Stuff You Should Know - modeled after the popular podcast Stuff You Should Know, this podcast explains a wide range of topics ... everything from Stylites (standing on pillars in style) to Ethiopian Christianity to Bishop's Wear and beyond.